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Neck of femur fracture types

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Femoral neck fractures and peritrochanteric fractures are equally prevalent and make up over 90 percent of proximal femur fractures. The femoral neck is the most common location for a hip fracture... Hip fractures are common injuries. Femoral neck fractures are a specific type of intracapsular hip fracture. The femoral neck connects the femoral shaft with the femoral head. The hip joint is the articulation of the femoral head with the acetabulum Updated on January 22, 2021 A femoral neck fracture is a type of hip fracture of the thigh bone (femur) —just below the ball of the ball-and-socket hip joint. This type of fracture disconnects the ball from the rest of the femur. It often causes groin pain that worsens when you putting weight on the injured leg The Garden classification is the most commonly used for femoral neck fractures. This splits into four categories depending on the severity of the fracture and the degree of displacement. Type I is an incomplete fracture or valgus impacted fracture. Type II is a complete fracture without displacement Femoral neck fracture: A femoral neck fracture occurs one to two inches from the hip joint. These fractures are common among older adults and can be related to osteoporosis. This type of fracture may cause a complication because the break usually cuts off the blood supply to the head of the femur which forms the hip joint

Femoral Neck Fracture: Types, Symptoms, Treatment, and

Femoral neck fractures in young patients are usually caused by high-energy trauma. These fractures are often associated with multiple injuries and high rates of avascular necrosis and nonunion Femoral neck fractures are a type of proximal hip fractures (occurring proximal to the inter-trochanteric line). All proximal fractures are intracapsular fractures. They can be subdivided into..

The indications for surgery and the surgical management differ depending on the type of patient and the type of fracture. The timing or urgency for surgical intervention may also depend on which type of fracture has occurred. In general, most patients with femoral neck fractures benefit from surgical intervention, at least for pain control. Types of hip fractures. Most hip fractures occur in one of two locations — at the femoral neck or in the intertrochanteric region. The location of the fracture helps determine the best treatment options Introduction. Fractured neck of femur is an important injury for many reasons: It is common. It can be difficult to accurately diagnose. Its incidence is increasing. The majority of fractures are caused by falls in the elderly and the fracture usually occurs through osteoporotic bone. Patients who fracture their neck of femur commonly also have. A femoral fracture is a fracture of the femur (thigh bone). A femoral shaft fracture is defined as a fracture of the diaphysis occurring between 5 cm distal to the lesser trochanter and 5 cm proximal to the adductor tubercle occurs by chronic, repetitive activity that is common to runners and military

Femoral neck fractures The cause of this is usually a fall onto the hip. As a result of this, the head of the femur breaks off from the neck of the femur. In older people, this type of fracture is usually treated with a joint replacement. Younger patients may be treated with a screw fixation. Pertrochanteric femoral neck fractures Definition of an extracapsular neck of femur fracture (#NOF) Extra capsular neck of femur fractures (#NOF) are fractures of the neck of the femur which occur outside the capsule of the hip joint. As such the risks of avascular necrosis of the femoral head or no longer a concern A series of fractures of the femoral neck in adolescence is presented. Most of the fractures were of the transcervical type. Treatment with plaster fixation or wire proved to be inadequate in displaced fractures in adolescence. When using a trifin nail a better result was obtained and a hole was drilled for the nail but in some cases the nail slipped out, broke, or bent Other closed transcervical fracture of neck of femur C The overwhelming majority of hip fractures occur in white individuals while blacks and Hispanics have a lower rate of them. Hip fracture Initial post-operative radiographs, and radiographs taken 3 months post-op revealed anatomic reduction of the fracture with no shortening

INTRODUCTION. Fixation and treatment of the young femoral neck fracture continues to be associated with anxiety among orthopaedic providers. This is due in large part to the potentially high complication rate of avascular necrosis (AVN) and nonunion, as well as the need for reoperation, which has been cited at nearly 20% in this patient population. 1 There is a lack of general consensus and. Hip fractures are classified according to their anatomical location as intracapsular, which involves the femoral head and neck, and extracapsular, which includes intertrochanteric, trochanteric, and subtrochanteric fractures. A low impact fall is the typical mechanism of injury in the eldery and is often associated with underlying. osteoporosis.

Femoral Neck Fractures - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

  1. A femoral fracture is a bone fracture that involves the femur. They are typically sustained in high-impact trauma, such as car crashes, due to the large amount of force needed to break the bone. Fractures of the diaphysis, or middle of the femur, are managed differently from those at the head, neck, and trochante
  2. Proximal femoral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that occur in and around the hip. The commonest type of fracture in this region is the femoral neck fracture. They can occur anywhere between the joint surface of the femoral head and the upper shaft (proximal diaphysis) of the femur
  3. A trochanteric fracture, below the neck of the femur, has a good chance of healing. Closed reduction may not be satisfactory and open reduction then becomes necessary. The use of open reduction has been reported as 8-13% among pertrochanteric fractures, and 52% among intertrochanteric fractures
  4. Neck of femur fractures are the most prevalent type of injury in elderly trauma patients. Both intra and extra capsular type of fractures are equally distributed in the given population. Traditionally, Extra capsular fractures are fixed with Dynamic Hip screw or Intra medullary nailing based on the type of fracture
  5. Fracture neck of femur (NOF) patients is high-risk surgical patients, often with multiple comorbidities and advanced age. We quantify the 30-day mortality rate in fractured NOF patients with a positive peri-operative COVID-19 antigen test and identify risk factors for increased mortality
  6. The proximal femoral fractures are classified as 31 fractures. Intertrochanteric Neck and head hip fractures fractures Examples of treatment 31-A with DHS 31-B and C with hemi-arthroplasty We will further discuss the 31-B fractures. The age and physiological status of patients dictate the treatment. 1. The 31-B1 fracture is a subcapital.

Femoral Neck Fracture: Treatments and Complication

The risk of disruption of the blood supply to the femoral head is dependent on fracture type and age. The risk for a displaced Delbet type I fracture is up to 100%, for type II fracture is up to 61%, for type III fracture is up to 27% and for type IV fracture is 14%. Coxa vara (neck shaft angle <120 degrees) - this is the second most common. The following is the Garden classification of femoral neck fractures: Type 1- inferior cortex is not completely broken. Type 2- cortex is broken but there is no angulation. Type 3- some displacement and rotation of the femoral head. Type 4- complete displacement. In addition, femoral neck fracture is classified by its location: 1. subcapita

Femoral neck fractures are a specific type of intracapsular hip fracture. The femoral neck connects the femoral shaft with the femoral head. The hip joint is the articulation of the femoral head with the acetabulum. The junctional location makes the femoral neck prone to fracture The following is the Garden classification of femoral neck fractures: Type 1- inferior cortex is not completely broken. Type 2- cortex is broken but there is no angulation. Type 3- some displacement and rotation of the femoral head. Type 4- complete displacement. In addition, femoral neck fracture is classified by its location: 5. subtrochanteric Physiotherapy for fractured neck of femur surgery The top part of the thighbone (femur) close to your hip joint, is called the neck of femur. The neck of femur is commonly fractured by a fall. Generally, this type of fracture occurs in the elderly and happens more frequently in women A fractured neck of the femur is always an emergency and reduction and fixation must be done in 24 hours to minimize the risk of adverse effects. The aims of the surgery are to: Achieve anatomical reduction. Restore blood supply to the head of the femur. Impact the fracture fragments The three most common types of hip fractures are: Intracapsular Fractures - break occurs below the ball or in the neck of the femur; Intertrochanteric Fractures - break occurs between the greater trochanter and lesser trochanter; Subtrochanteric Fractures - break occurs below the lesser trochanter or further down the femur Although hip.

Femoral neck fractures: These fractures occur if the ball of the ball-and-socket joint is broken at the top of the femur. Intertrochanteric hip fractures: These fractures occur just below the femoral neck and can be repaired easily as compared to femoral neck fractures. 2.Femoral Shaft Fractures. A femoral shaft fracture is a serious injury. Type 1 fractures are incomplete and valgus impacted, while type 2 fractures are complete. 11 Type 3 fractures are partially displaced, and type 4 fractures are completely displaced. 11 A modification of the Garden classification simply divides femoral neck fractures into nondisplaced or displaced Dr. Ebraheim's educational animated video describes classifications of femoral neck fractures.Femoral neck fractures can occur as a result of low energy trau.. The most commonly used classification system for femoral neck fractures is the Garden classification. The fractures are divided into 4 groups according to the degree of displacement and fracture.

Femoral Neck Fractures - Physiopedi

Types of Hip Fractures Stanford Health Car

Classification: Description: Notes: Type 1: Nondisplaced talar neck: AVN Risk 0-15%: Type2: Displaced neck fracture with subtalar dislocation or subluxatio A femoral neck fracture is a condition characterized by a break in the neck of the femur (thigh bone). The femur is the anatomical name given to the long bone of the thigh (figure 1). It is the largest and strongest bone in the body. The neck of the femur refers to the part of the bone which connects the round headed ball of the hip joint to.

Femoral Neck Fractures - Trauma - Orthobullet

  1. Compression-type stress fractures occur at the inferomedial aspect of the femoral neck, usually near the distal cortical interface with the primary compressive trabeculae, whereas tension-type stress fractures occur at the superolateral aspect of the femoral neck, perpendicular to the tensile trabeculae
  2. Shentons line should describe a smooth curve. If there is any sharp angulation of Shentons line the patient could have a neck of femur fracture. An abnormal Shentons line can be the most obvious indicator of a patients fractured neck of femur demonstrated on an AP pelvis /hip image. 10/16/2012 36 37. 10/16/2012 37 38
  3. The treatment of fractures of the femoral neck. Subcapital fractures of the femur in rheumatoid arthritis. Fractures of the proximal part of the femur. An algorithm for the management of femoral neck fractures. Functional outcome after hip fracture. A 1-year prospective outcome study of 275 patients
  4. The reported 30-day mortality rate after femoral neck fracture in the elderly is approximately 9.6% and increases to approximately 30% at one year. However the exact rate varies and may depend on fracture pattern, prior functional status, and baseline health prior to injury [ 3 - 5 ]
  5. These fractures are at high risk for AVN (12% to 33%) [5,30,31] and nonunion (15% to 33%) [5,30,31] In healthy, active patients the treatment of choice is anatomical reduction, which must be achieved for a good result, with internal fixation. Femoral neck fractures reduced anatomically are best fixed with 3 pins or screws

Femoral neck fracture causes, types, symptoms, diagnosis

  1. A. Femoral neck fracture. The femur neck is a flattened pyramidal process of bone, connecting the head of the femur to the body. A femoral neck fracture occurs one to two inches from the hip joint. These fractures are common among older adults and can be related to osteoporosis. This type of fracture may cause a complication because the break.
  2. ation of shear forces. Due to controversy regarding which fixation method is the best choice, the purpose.
  3. Femur Fractures • Common injury due to major violent trauma • 1 femur fracture/ 10,000 people • More common in people < 25 yo or >65 yo • Femur fracture leads to reduced activity for 107 days, the average length of hospital stay is 25 days • Motor vehicle, motorcycle, auto- pedestrian, aircraft, and gunshot wound accidents are mos
  4. Fractures of the proximal femur are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in patients over the age of 50. 1 Overall, hip fractures in older adults are common, with femoral neck fractures accounting for 3.6% of all fractures. 2,3 The treatment of a subset of these fractures, basicervical femoral neck fractures, is.

A femoral neck fracture happens 1 to 2 inches from your hip joint. This type of fracture is common among older adults and can be related to osteoporosis. This type of fracture may cause a complication, because the break usually cuts off the blood supply to the head of the thighbone, which forms the hip joint A hip fracture is classified by the specific area of the break and the type of break(s) in your bone. The most common types of hip fractures are: Femoral neck fracture. A femoral neck fracture happens 1 to 2 inches from your hip joint. This type of fracture is common among older adults and can be related to osteoporosis Chapter 21. Femoral Neck Fracture: Closed Reduction and Internal Fixation. Kenneth J. Koval. Hip fractures are a common and often devastating injury. in the geriatric population with an impact that extends far beyond the. obvious orthopaedic injury into the domains of medicine, rehabilitation, psychiatry, social work, and medical economics Femoral Neck Fracture. This type of fracture is also sometimes called a subcapital or intracapsular fracture. If a femoral neck fracture is not displaced, the most common treatment is in-situ pinning. In this procedure, surgical pins or screws are passed across the fracture site to hold the ball of the femur in place while the fracture heals.. Pediatric proximal femur fractures are rare fractures caused by high-energy trauma and are often associated with polytrauma. Treatment may be casting or operative depending on the age of the patient and the type of fracture. Treatment is urgent to avoid complication of osteonecrosis, nonunion, and premature physeal closure

In certain types of femur fractures, your femur has broken, but its pieces still line up correctly. In other types of fractures (displaced fractures), the trauma moves the bone fragments out of alignment. If you fracture your femur, you usually need ORIF to bring your bones back into place and help them heal Insufficiency stress fractures of the femoral neck in elderly women. Femoral neck stress fractures in children and adolescents. Surgical treatment of displaced stress fractures of the femoral neck in military recruits: a report of 42 cases. Atypical Tensile-Sided Femoral Neck Stress Fractures. The Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code S72.002B [convert to ICD-9-CM] Fracture of unspecified part of neck of left femur, initial encounter for open fracture type I or II. Fx unsp part of neck of left femur, init for opn fx type I/2; Open fracture of neck of left femur; Open left femoral neck (upper leg bone) fracture The femoral neck connects the femoral head to the proximal portion of the femoral shaft and attaches to the intertrochanteric region ( figure 1 ). The term hip fracture is applied to fractures in any of these locations. Disruption of the blood supply to the head and neck of the femur can impair fracture healing in these structures ( figure 2. The incidence of fracture neck of femur is higher in old age. 3 10/16/2013. 4. ANATOMY OF NECK OF FEMUR Neck connects head with shaft and is about 3.7 cm long. It makes angle with the shaft 130+/- 7 degree ( less in female due to their wider pelvis). It facilitate movements of hip joint. It is strengthened by calcar femorale (bony thickening.

Intertrochanteric hip fractures occur in approximately the same demographics as femoral neck fractures. There is a female:male ratio between approximately 2:1 and 8:1. Patients with femoral neck fractures tend to be slightly older than patient with intertrochanteric fractures Fractures below the neck of the femur, called intertrochanteric or peritrochanteric fractures, are treated with surgical repair using rods, plates, or screws. As stated, the ideal way to fix a particular fracture may vary depending on the fracture pattern, surgeon preference, and the particular patient being treated We present a series of 247 undisplaced femoral neck fractures, of which 122 were primarily treated non-operatively, and 125 with primary operative stabilization. The background parameters did not differ significantly in the two groups. The length of hospitalization was 1 week shorter in the operatively treated group. They started to walk bearing full weight at an average of 11 days earlier Objectives . To study the correlation between avascular necrosis and the demographics, time elapsed from fracture to surgery, quality of reduction, Garden classification, and the position of the screw following use of the dynamic hip screw (DHS) in the treatment of subcapital neck fractures. Methods . A prospective study of 96 patients with subcapital neck fractures was carried out in a. Femoral neck fracture (FNF) is one type of hip fracture, and hemiarthroplasty (HA) is currently a recognized method for the treatment of FNF. It is considered suitable for elderly displaced FNF with low functional requirements and no acetabular wear (Grosso et al., 2016)

Garden Classification of Femoral Neck Fractures UW

  1. management of fracture neck femur in the elderly population with limited physical demand and low economic background. The mortality and morbidity are low; the operative procedure is simple with satisfactory functional results and fewer complications. words: fracture neck of femur, Austin Moore prosthesis. Introductio
  2. or injuries or falls. Talking about the younger generation, Femoral Neck Fracture can be caused due.
  3. Fractures of the femoral neck and includes fractures that involve the proximal femoral epiphysis, femoral neck, and intertrochanteric region of the femur. Delbet classified femoral neck fractures into four types that provides guidance for treatment and prognosis (Figure 1): Type 1--transepiphyseal fractures. Type 2--transcervical fractures
  4. A fracture that occurs between the femoral neck and the trochanter is called an intertrochanteric fracture. A fracture that occurs below the trochanter is called a subtrochanteric fracture. Either type of fracture is usually caused by a direct blow to this part of the hip due to a fall. Types of Pelvic Fractures. The pelvis is composed of three.

Hip fracture classification. Location of femur fractures. Consider AP pelvis in addition to AP/lateral views to compare contralateral side. Consider MRI if strong clinical suspicion but negative x-ray. Anterior-posterior radiograph of a patient who sustained a Garden I-II femoral neck fracture The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint where your thigh bone (the femur) joins with the pelvis (the acetabulum). The femur is the ball while the pelvis is the socket, and hip fractures are an injury to the ball portion of the joint. The femoral neck is part of the femur just before it forms the hip joint, and its.

The treatment of femoral neck stress fractures is based on fracture pattern. Fullerton and Snowdy 102 modified Devas' original classification system 105 and described three types of fracture patterns: compression, tension (or distraction), and displaced fractures of the femoral neck (Figure 25.13) Femoral neck stress fractures are a common cause of hip pain in select populations. Chronic, repetitive activity that is common to runners and military recruits predisposes these populations to femoral neck stress fractures. [] These injuries must be differentiated from insufficiency fractures, which, though similar in appearance and presentation, result from an entirely different.

Skin traction - YouTube

Principles of reconstruction. Use two or three 7.0 mm or 7.3 mm cancellous screws. Make sure they are parallel and that the thread is in the head fragment and does not cross the fracture line. The inferior screw should rest on the calcar. A washer may be used to stop the screw head from penetrating the bone of the greater trochanter Femoral neck fractures and pertrochanteric fractures are of approximately equal incidence [4, 5] and together make up over 90% of the proximal femur fractures and the remaining 5-10% are subtrochanteric. According to more recent research, half of the proximal femur fractures are intraarticular fractures of the femoral neck [6, 7] A fracture of the femoral neck is classified as a type of hip fracture. With associated lengthy hospital stays and an estimated cost of over 7500 per fracture. The femoral aspect of the hip is made up of the femoral head with its articular cartilage and the femoral neck which connects the head to the shaft in the region of the lesser and greater Management: Pipkin Type IIIPipkin Type III zInvolve fractures of the femoral neckfemoral neck Æincreased risk of femoral head AVN. zImmediate surgical redti fthf lduction of the femoral neck fracture. zManagement of the femoral head fracture based on Type I or Type II involvement. zSevere cases or cases involving AVN may requir

Fractured Neck of Femur FNOF Orthopaedics Geeky Medic

However, recent experience suggests that the type of fracture may be an important guide to the kind of treatment employed (28, 31); for example, a horizontal fracture of the femoral neck, in valgus position, may be treated by a Whitman abduction cast, while a vertical fracture must nearly always be treated by nailing The femur (thigh bone) at the level of the hip is made up of 4 different parts: the head, neck, greater trochanter, and lesser trochanter. Fractures can occur anywhere within these 4 regions. Typically, isolated greater trochanteric fractures can be treated non-operatively Garden Types I and II femoral neck fractures are nondisplaced. Internal fixation with preservation of the femoral head generally is favored for nondisplaced fractures of the femoral neck. Bentley looked at the treatment of impacted femoral neck fractures treated nonoperatively and found that these fractures displaced as much as 15% of the time Femoral neck fractures typically occur in young patients as a result of high-energy trauma with a common pattern of a Pauwels type III fracture [1, 2].Complications, including femoral neck shortening (FNS), non-union, and avascular necrosis (AVN), are relatively common after the internal fixation of this fracture pattern [3-9].These complications will result in poor functional outcome and a.

What is a fracture neck of femur

neck of femur. Keywords: femoral neck fractures, screw fixation InTroDuCTIon Fracture of the neck of femur is a challenging injury to manage. It is one of the more common injuries presenting to the emergency room and is likely to remain so in the near future. It is often a fracture of fragility due to osteoporosi A valgus-impacted femoral neck fracture is noted on both anteroposterior and lateral x-rays. As the population ages, hip fractures are becoming an increasingly common presentation in emergency rooms A femoral neck fracture line < 30 degrees from the horizontal plane is Pauwels Type I , fractures with an angle between 30 and 50 degrees is Pauwels Type II, and an angle of > 50 degrees categorizes a Pauwels Type III fracture

Neck of Femur Fracture - Subcapital - Intertrochanteric

Hip fractures can occur in several areas of the upper femur. The most common types of hip fractures are: Femoral neck fracture: The neck is the area of bone just below the femoral head (ball). Intertrochanteric fracture: The intertrochanteric area is the part of the femur that lies between the femoral neck and the long, straight part of the femur ↑ Lawrence, VA, et al. Medical complications and outcomes after hip fracture repair. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162(18):2053-7. ↑ Reavley P, et al. Randomised trial of the fascia iliaca block versus the '3-in-1' block for femoral neck fractures in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2014 Nov 27

Intertrochanteric femoral fracture | Image | RadiopaediaLateral condyle fracture | Image | Radiopaedia

anatomy of femur neck A fracture of the femoral neck is classified as a type of hip fracture.It is often due to osteoporosis; in the vast majority of cases, a hip fracture is a fragility fracture due to a fall or minor trauma in someone with weakened osteoporotic bone. Most hip fractures in people with normal bone are the result of high-energy. intra-operative fracture.14 Dorr type C femurs are found predominantly in older women with lower body weight. These femurs have structural and cellular compromise and are less favourable for implant fixation.14 Worse Dorr proximal femoral types correlated with lower cortical thickness indices.14,15 In patients with femoral neck fractures, standar Femoral neck fractures (FNFs) are fractures of the flattened pyramidal bone connecting the femoral head and the femoral shaft. It is not so common in healthy individuals but common among athletes, military recruits, and young adults because of high energy cases such as sports and road traffic accidents, in adults due to falls, in women with estrogen imbalances, and in patients with bone. dimensional model showing a left impacted, Garden type I femoral neck fracture (C). Front (D) and top (E) views of a bilateral proximal femoral 3-dimensional model showing the normal femur and. Ipsilateral femoral neck fracture can occur in 2% to 6% of all femoral shaft fractures. 64-71 These concomitant ipsilateral injuries can be challenging to reduce, and the best methods of fixation are debatable. 64,66,71 The femoral neck fracture is often a Pauwels' type III and nondisplaced. Treatment of the femoral neck should be a.

Femur Shaft Fractures (Broken Thighbone) - OrthoInfo - AAO

A femoral neck fracture is a fracture of the femur in the area just below the ball of the hip joint, or head of the femur (Figure 1). This area is called the femoral neck and connects the shaft of the femur to its head. These fractures usually occur in older patients as a result of a fall onto the hip. In addition to pain and an inability. Between 2008 and 2011, nine hundred sixty-six patients with femoral neck fractures were treated, 48 of whom had Garden type I fractures, as seen on anteroposterior radiographs. Seven fractures were classified as incomplete on radiographs; however, after 3-dimensional reconstruction, 3 were classified as incomplete and 4 as complete fractures particular proximal femur fracture procedure. Internal fixation of femoral neck fractures-Jenó Manninger 2007-05-15 This illustrated atlas provides a comprehensive monograph of femoral neck fractures. It has more than 800 representative figures, x-rays and drawings, and describes in detail non-invasive internal fixation A hip fracture is classified by the specific area of the break and the type of break (s) in your bone. The most common types of hip fractures are: Femoral neck fracture. A femoral neck fracture happens 1 to 2 inches from your hip joint. This type of fracture is common among older adults and can be related to osteoporosis

Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, corner fracture typeIntra medullary locking nail for fracture femur - YouTube

Fractured Neck of Femur. Background: Surgery is the treatment of choice for fractured neck of femur. For middle-aged patients (aged ca. 40 to 65), there is considerable debate over the indications. The Femoral Neck System (FNS) is indicated for femoral neck fractures, including basilar, transcervical, and subcapital fractures, in adults and adolescents (12-21) in which the growth plates have fused or will not be crossed. Contraindications: The specific contraindications for the Femoral Neck System (FNS) include: Pertrochanteric fractures · Treatment. o Intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck are most often treated with a prosthetic or replacement device for the femoral head and/or neck. o Intertrochanteric fractures are frequently treated using a compression-type screw, pin or nail and laterally-placed side-plate § Intramedullary nails are also used for fixatio FRACTURED NECK OF FEMUR CARE PATHWAY Inclusion Criteria The patient commences the pathway once suspected of a Fractured Neck of Femur. Exclusion Criteria This care pathway is NOT suitable for patients undergoing a scheduled procedure, admitted with another emergency condition Femoral Neck Fracture Delbet Classification • Type I: Transphyseal - <10% of hip fractures - Most in children less than 2 or between 5 and 10 years of age - Diagnosed late in newborns and infants - Can result from child abuse - Subtypes • Type IA - no dislocation of the epiphysis from the acetabulu