Examination of optic nerve ppt

Examination of the optic nerve 1. EXAMINATION OF THE OPTIC NERVE -Dr Akshay Nayak 2. Headings to consider in general 1. Visual acuity 2. Colour vision 3. Field of vision 4. Pupillary reaction 5. IOP 6. Ophthalmoscopy 7. Slit lamp 8. Fluorescein angiography 9. X ray/ct skull,pns,orbit 10. Visually evoked potential{vep} 11. OCT 3 12. 2nd cranial nerve Starts from optic disc, extends upto optic chiasma Backward continuation of nerve fiber layer of retina (axons of ganglion cells) Also contains afferent fibers of light reflex and some centrifugal fibers Optic Nerve. 13 Cranial nerve examination 1. Cranial nerve examination 2. Cranial nerves I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. Olfactory Optic Occulomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducent Facial Auditory Glossopharyngeal Vagus Spinal accessory Hypoglosseal 3. Summary of funCtion of Cranial nerveS 4

Optic Nerve Damage - Electrical Stimulation Therap

Cranial nerve examination 1. Cranial Nerve Examination Irfan Ziad MD UCD drkupe.blogspot.com 2. CN2 :Optic CN1 :Olfactory CN3 :Oculomotor CN4 :Trochlear CN5: Trigeminal CN6 :Abducens CN7 :Facial CN8: Vestibulocochlear CN9: Glossoparyngeal CN10: Vagus CN11: Accessory CN12: Hypoglossal midbrain pons medulla Anterior aspect of midbrain Dorsal aspect of midbrai Optic nerve : The optic nerve being a portion of central nervous system is a tract, and not really a nerve. However, as a convention the 1.2 million axons that derive from the retinal ganglion cells carry the name optic nerve, until they partially decussate at the optic chiasm. Wednesday, October 29, 2014 Department of Ophthalmology, JNMC 3 4 Examination of Peripheral Nerve of The Upper Limb - Title: Olfactory nerves CN2 Optic Nerves Slide 7 CN3 Oculomotor Nerves Slide 9 CN4 Trochlear Nerves Slide 11 The PowerPoint PPT presentation: EXAMINATION OF THE CRANIAL NERVES is the property of its rightful owner.. Cranial nerves: OPTIC II OCULOMOTOR III TROCHLEAR IV TRIGEMINAL V ABDUCENS VI FACIAL VII VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR VIII GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL IX VAGUS X HYPOGLOSSAL ROOTLETS XII SPINAL ACCESSORY XI c p Only the trochlear nerve IV arises from the dorsal surface of the brain stem

Damage to the optic nerve produces unilateral visual problem.Multiple sclerosis is the commonest cause of optic nerve disease, but it may also occur with trauma and tumors of the orbit. Pressure on the optic chiasm is usually due to pituitary tumors, and it produces a bitemporal hemianopia, damage beyond this level produces an homonymous hemianopia.Damage to the optic tract, optic radiation. Cranial nerves examination: Optic nerve Author: Lorenzo Crumbie MBBS, BSc • Reviewer: Francesca Salvador MSc Last reviewed: November 13, 2020 Reading time: 18 minutes In the real world, the clinician will be expected to examine the entire eye.This will involve gross and magnified inspection of the eyeball, intricate assessment of the supporting structures of the eye, and assessment of all. Here is a checklist of things to consider when examining the optic nerve. A thorough two-step exam will include the following: STEP ONE: THE OPTIC NERVE EXAM. Clinically measure the size of the optic disc. You may use the 5-degree aperture of a Welch Allyn direct ophthalmoscope, which is approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers. Nerve signals travel along the optic nerve from each eye and send visual information to the brain. Damage along the optic nerve pathway causes specific patterns of vision loss

Examination of the optic nerve - SlideShar

Cranial Nerves and Its Examination - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Cranial nerves and its examination Components of nervous system Names of cranial nerves Classification • Sensory cranial nerves: contain only afferent (sensory) fibers - I Olfactory nerve - II Optic nerve - VIII Vestibulocochlear. Physical Examination. In a patient with a typical initial acute case of optic neuritis (ON), findings on a general physical examination are normal. Pupillary light reaction is decreased in the affected eye, and a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) or Marcus Gunn pupil is commonly found. In bilateral cases, the RAPD may not be apparent (F) Optic nerve head drusen—note yellow refractile bodies within discs with associated lack of optic cups. Examination of eye movements This is dealt with in detail in the article by Danchaivijitr and Kennard. 4 A brief overview of the different types of eye movement is provided in table 4, and an overview of eye movement examination in table 5 Fundoscopic_Examination.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Fundoscopic_Examination. Grade 3 + swollen optic nerve (Malignant hypertension) Continuing Medical Implementation.

OSCE Checklist: Cranial Nerve Examination Introduction 1 Gather equipment 2 Wash your hands and don PPE if appropriate 3 Introduce yourself to the patient including your name and role 4 Confirm the patient's name and date of birth 5 Briefly explain what the examination will involve using patient-friendly language 6 Gain consent to proceed with the examination Cranial nerve II (optic nerve) This is one of the nerves of the eye that helps control vision. A visual test may be given and your child's eye may be examined with a special light. Cranial nerve III (oculomotor) This is another nerve that controls part of the eye. This nerve is responsible for the pupil size and the movement of the eye Cranial Nerve II -Optic • Visual acuity -Snellen eye chart • Visual fields . Page 15 xxx00.#####.ppt 4/28/2017 9:19:29 AM Page 34 Case Study 1 •7 year old female with no PMH who presented in clinic with ataxia and right eye esotropia. •On exam, she is awake and alert, follows commands. Right CN VI palsy. Decreased right facial. Optic nerve atrophy. Optic nerve atrophy involves the death of nerve fibres within the optic nerve. This results in a pale optic disc as opposed to the usual pink appearance. Primary optic nerve atrophy is caused by inflammation (optic neuritis), glaucoma or general retinal ischaemia. Secondary optic nerve atrophy is caused by longstanding.

In their excellent Review on diagnosis and clinical features of common optic neuropathies, Valérie Biousse and Nancy Newman1 show how advances in optic nerve imaging, such as retinal digital photography, optical coherence tomography, and MRI have improved the diagnosis and the classification of optic neuropathies. However, the authors did not mention transorbital sonography, a method to. Ophthalmoscopy can detect lens or vitreous opacities, assess the optic cup-to-disk ratio, and identify retinal and vascular changes. The optic cup is the central depression, and the optic disk is the entire area of the optic nerve head. The normal ratio of the cup-to-nerve diameters is 0 to 0.4 View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Posterior Segment Examination Of Eye PPT. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations research about Posterior Segment Examination Of Eye PPT Optical coherence tomography analysis of the optic nerve head of the right eye (OD) and left eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement in children is often difficult to perform because younger children are non-compliant and resisting the examination. Normal IOP in children is not well established yet because in the studies reporting about IOP, the instruments used and clinical conditions have Anatomy Of Optic Nerve PPT. Presentation Summary : pressure rises with arterial inflow into uvea - rare, usually pathological. Eg. High ocular pressure or aortic incompetence. On physical examination, blood pressure is 130/86 mm Hg and pulse rate is 72/min. Palpation of the neck elicits pain. Right ptosis and miosis are noted, but all

Anatomy of Optic Nerve - SlideShar

Cranial nerve examination frequently appears in OSCEs. You'll be expected to assess a subset of the twelve cranial nerves and identify abnormalities using your clinical skills. This cranial nerve examination OSCE guide provides a clear step-by-step approach to examining the cranial nerves, with an included video demonstration OPHTHALMOSCOPY • an examination of the back part of the eye (fundus), which includes the retina , optic disc, choroid, and blood vessels. OPHTHALMOSCOPE • is about the size of a flashlight. • It has a light and several different tiny lenses that allows the examiner to view the back of the eyeball Examination of the cranial nerves allows one to view the brainstem all the way from its rostral to caudal extent. The brainstem can be divided into three levels, the midbrain, the pons and the medulla. The cranial nerves for each of these are: 2 for the midbrain (CN 3 & 4), 4 for the pons (CN 5-8), and 4 for the medulla (CN 9-12) sensory receptors. sensory receptors are specialized nerve cells that transduce energy into neural signals. - lack axons, but form synapses with DENDRITES of other sensory neurons. sensory receptors are mode specific. - convert specific mode into an electrochemical signal for our brain to understand

Cranial nerve examination - SlideShar

Objectives To measure Optic Nerve Subarachnoid Space (ONSAS) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and controls using A-scan ultrasound and to evaluate the measurement of the ONSAS in relation to age patient and OCT parameters. Methods This retrospective study included 53 consecutive eyes of 27 patients with POAG and 64 normal eyes of 32 controls NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY Clinical Examination Visual Acuity Colour Vision Visual Fields Pupils Normal Eye and Optic Disc The swollen optic disc The pale optic disc Papilloedema Disc swelling secondary to raised ICP Headache Worse in the morning Valsalva manouver Nausea and projectile vomiting Horizontal diplopia (VI palsy) Causes Space occupying lesion Intracranial hypertension Idiopathic Drugs.

Title: Optic Nerve of the Human Eye 1 Optic Nerve of the Human Eye. By Sandy McKeever,C.O.T. an ophthalmologic examination. 21 AmblyopiaThe enemy. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: Optic Nerve of the Human Eye is the property of its rightful owner Damages the optic nerve. Can cause permanent vision loss if left untreated. * What causes glaucoma? Slow fluid drainage. Pressure builds up and damages the optic nerve. Glaucoma can be detected through a comprehensive dilated eye exam. How is glaucoma detected? Glaucoma Toolkit PowerPoint: Keep Vision in Your Future Subject. A comprehensive dilated eye exam can reveal more risk factors, such as high eye pressure, thinness of the cornea, and abnormal optic nerve anatomy. In some people with certain combinations of these high-risk factors, medicines in the form of eye drops reduce the risk of developing glaucoma by about half

Optic nerve tumors ppt - SlideShar

  1. ation and Clinical Importance. GO BACK. Dr Thejus . B Department of Neurology Bangalore Medical College. PowerPoint Neurophthalmology. PowerPoint Neurophthalmology
  2. ation of the retina performed with the patient at arms length Re
  3. Introduction to the Fundoscopic / Ophthalmoscopic Exam. The retina is the only portion of the central nervous system visible from the exterior. Likewise the fundus is the only location where vasculature can be visualized. So much of what we see in internal medicine is vascular related and so viewing the fundus is a great way to get a sense for.
  4. ation is to be systematic and always perform each element. 1. Visual acuity. In the clinic, visual acuity is typically measured at distance. Otherwise, in a consult setting outside of the clinic, it's measured at near. Don't forget to have a near card with you
  5. then that eye is less sensitive to light and, hence, there is a relative afferent papillary defect (partial optic nerve lesion on that side). Optic disc: I would also like to perform ophthalmoscopy to visualise the optic disc. CN 3, 4, 6 (Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens) Ask if they have any double vision and tell you if they experience any a


  1. e the fundus and optic nerve function in addition to extraocular muscle function. Headache/problems suggesting neurological cause in absence of red eye: exa
  2. ation Olfactory Nerve. Ask the patient if they have noticed any change in sense of smell: Characteristic smelling objects (e.g. pepper
  3. ation of the Cranial Nerves. When testing the cranial nerves one must be cognizant of asymmetry. The following is a summary of the cranial nerves and their respective functioning. I - Smell. II - Visual acuity, visual fields and ocular fundi. II,III - Pupillary reactions. III,IV,VI - Extra-ocular movements, including opening of the eyes
  4. ation shows defects that are consistent with the state of the optic nerve. Measurements of the nerve fiber layer over the optic nerve can confirm an abnormally thin nerve. Treatment
  5. ation, and explanation of clinical findings, drawing together material typically laser from an external approach The most comprehensive coverage of the optic nerve and the importance of nerve fiber layer hemorrhage Provides an integrated approach to neovascular.

Clinical Examination of the Optic Nerv

An optic nerve glioma is a neoplastic process that infiltrates the optic nerve parenchyma. On ultrasound, this is a smooth, fusiform mass with low-to-medium and regular internal reflectivity. An optic nerve sheath meningioma is an example of a tumor of the optic nerve sheath B ecause the eye is an extension of the brain, a neurologic examination can be a crucial diagnostic tool. The neuro exam allows you to assess structures neighboring those that are important to vision and can help determine the level of urgency for a patient's ocular findings such as visual field defects, cranial neuropathies, double vision, optic neuropathy, ptosis, pupillary abnormalities. Optic Nerve. Starting out with the optic nerve head, the examination can begin at the slit lamp. The 90-D lens or 60-D lens can do the job. The optic nerve can be examined for fine fronds of neovascularization (Fig. 5-2 ), flame-shaped hemorrhages as in glaucoma. Glaucoma can occur with diabetic patients The role of clinical examination of the optic nerve head in glaucoma today. The role of clinical examination of the optic nerve head in glaucoma. today. Correspondence to Ramanjit Sihota, Dr R.P Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India. Tel: +00919899806749; e-mail: rjsihota@gmail.com This is a right hemianopia from a lesion behind the optic chiasm involving the left optic tract, radiation or striate cortex. Video is without sound. Cranial Nerve 2- Fundoscopy. The first photograph is of a fundus showing papilledema. The findings of papilledema include. 1. Loss of venous pulsations. 2

Cranial nerves examination: Optic nerve Kenhu

Cranial Nerve Palsies Of The Third, Fourth, And Sixth Cranial Nerves PPT. Presentation Summary : Cranial nerve palsies of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves can occur. 3rd nerve palsy most common. May cause double vision or abnormal head posture World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for Best PowerPoint Templates from Presentations Magazine. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect Lesions of the visual pathways, with anatomical relationships. In brief description, the anatomy of the visual pathways is as follows: Retina. Optic nerve. Optic chiasm (and there, the nasal visual field fibers cross over to the opposite side) Optic tract. Lateral geniculate nucleus. Optic radiation. Primary and secondary visual cortices Optic nerve gliomas are the most common primary optic nerve tumor, most commonly at the intraorbital segment. Gliomas can present with visual field deficits or painless proptosis. In neurofibromatosis type (NF) 1, gliomas occur in up to 20% of patients and are commonly bilateral 7. Female with uncontrolled diabetes presents with painful red eye and visual acuity is also decreased. On examination there was raised Intraocular Pressure and new blood vessels on the iris

Download as PowerPoint Open in Image Viewer The diagnosis usually is made on the basis of clinical examination. Optic nerve involvement may result in pain and affect central visual acuity and color vision. Abnormal high signal intensity may be seen in the optic nerve on T2-weighted images, while contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images may. Cranial nerve examination for nurses: Learn how to assess cranial nerves I-XII (1-12) for the nursing head-to-toe assessment.Cranial nerve tests will help yo.. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is the most common inherited mitochondrial disorder and typically affects young males. It typically begins as a unilateral progressive optic neuropathy with sequential involvement of the fellow eye months to years later. Treatment options are limited, but include the use of antioxidant supplements

Clinical Tests For Examination Of Trigeminal Nerve (5thPPT - CNS Examination PowerPoint Presentation, free

Optic Nerve Melanoctyoma: a Teaching Case Report | 1 | 1 Abstract Optic nerve melanocytoma is a benign variant of melanocytic nevus that is located within or adjacent to the optic nerve. Optic nerve melanocytomas are benign tumors but may cause vision loss and visual field defects. Rarely, these tumors may undergo malignant transformation Optic Nerve Injuries. Optic nerve injuries can result from either direct or indirect trauma. Rarely, a blunt orbital injury may fracture the optic canal and lacerate the optic nerve (, Fig 22). More commonly, a definitive fracture is not found. In these cases, the optic nerve or its vascular supply is torn, thrombosed, or compressed (, 22). In. Strabismus in thyroid eye disease is a result of inflammation and subsequent fibrosis that causes swelling and thickening of the extraocular muscles. This can restrict eye movement, causing misalignment and possibly resulting in double vision Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a common form of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in which there is no measured elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The clinical characteristics of NTG have many similarities to those in POAG, with a few notable distinctions. Like POAG, NTG is a chronic, progressive optic neuropathy that results in a characteristic optic nerve head cupping, retinal.

Purpose This study was to evaluate whether optic nerve damage occurs in eyes with adjacent chronic sinusitis. Methods Data were collected from eighty-eight eyes of 46 chronic sinusitis patients and 93 eyes of 57 normal controls. Visual sensitivity using standard automated perimetry (SAP) and inner retinal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) were measured Microsoft Powerpoint 22 Cranial Nerves Ix, X, Xi, PPT. Presentation Summary : Glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Vagus Nerve(X) Mixed cranialnerve. Widely distributed from the head and neck into the thorax andabdomen The normative data and patient data measuring 12×9 mm 2 were set to contain 60 and 45 evenly spaced points, which were the same as those of the superpixels of the 5.2×5.2 mm 2 field in the optic nerve or 6×6 mm 2 field in the macula, in order to match the pixel size with the superpixel on the classic deviation map. Subsequently, each wide. We observed erythema nodosum, aphthous stomatitis and genital ulceration. Ophthalmologic examination revealed mild right optic disc oedema. Visual acuity was normal in both eyes. MRI with gadolinium infusion revealed enhancement around the right optic nerve, suggesting optic nerve perineuritis (ONP). A diagnosis of Behçet's disease was made upper limbs Macleod's examination of the optic (II), oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV) and abducens (VI) nerves Facial nerve examination | Seventh cranial nerve Clinical Examination Of The Nervous History: current mental state: level of consciousness, orientation, memory (recent, long term), intellect, understanding, insight, thought content.

Macleod's examination of the optic (II), oculomotor (III), Page 8/33. Acces PDF Clinical Examination Of The Nervous System trochlear (IV) and abducens (VI) nerves Facial nerve examination | Seventh cranial nerve Clinical Examination Of The Nervous History: current mental state: level of consciousness, orientation, memory (recent, long term. examination revealed mild right optic disc oedema. Visual acuity was normal in both eyes. MRI with gadolinium infusion revealed enhancement around the right optic nerve, suggesting optic nerve perineuritis (ONP). A diagnosis of Behçet's disease was made. She was treated with prednisolone and colchicine with a favourable response A normal optic nerve on the left has a much smaller cup,or empty and visual field examination is necessary. Retaining independence People who have experienced vision loss from glaucoma can retain independence, productivity and quality of life by learn- PowerPoint Presentation. The message is then transferred up to the Nerve Fiber Layer, at the surface of the retina. The NFL is the wiring that transfers the visual message from the retina to the brain. There are approximately 1 million nerve fibers that come together to form the Optic nerve, and travel without synapse into the substance of the brain Facial Nerve Examination : Upper left : Raise your eye brow (you will see frontal corrugation due to action of frontalis muscle).Upper right : Puff out your cheecks snd do not let me push the air out. Lower left : Smile and show me your teeth.Lower right : Close your eyes as tight as you can, and do not let me open them

Optic nerve pits rarely affect visual acuity, unless the patient develops a serous macular detachment. 5 The origin of the serous fluid is not completely understood, however. 6 The most widely accepted theories are liquefied vitreous material gaining access to the subretinal space via the optic pit, or cerebrospinal fluid from the optic nerve leaking through the optic pit into the subretinal. The optic nerve head is the most anterior component of the optic nerve and corresponds to the 1 mm segment that is located within the eyeball (i.e. the intraocular part). Historically, it was thought to be a raised entity protruding from the retinal surface and by extension, was referred to as a papilla (hence the term, papilloedema) Optic Nerve (II) Make an eye chart (a Snellen Chart) like the one on the right. It doesn't have to be perfect. Have your partner try to read the lines at various distances away from the chart. Oculomotor Nerve (III), Trochlear Nerve (IV) and Abducens Nerve (VI) These three nerves control eye movement and pupil diameter Normally problems with visual fields are to do with a problem on the optic nerve such as a lesion in the optic chiasm. A problem in the occipital cortex or optic radiations can also be the case. - Then, we need to test for the blind spot, the area of the retina interrupted by the optic nerve

1401202002-History-Physical-examination-معدل.ppt. 134 Strabismus 1: 14012020013-Strabismus-eye-movement1.ppt. 139 Glucoma 1: 14012020010-GLAUCOMA-1.ppt Pupil optic nerve 1: 140120200Pupils-Optic-nerve-nor.ppt. 126 د. خليل السالم HX & PE. Funduscopic examination is normal. Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI - no extraocular motor palsy or difficulties with smooth pursuit or saccades are seen. Remainder of the cranial nerve exam is normal except for decreased hearing on the left, and numbness in the right face, which extends down into the entire right side Screening should consist of an eye examination consisting of gonioscopy (examination of the drainage angle), intraocular pressure measurement with goldmann applanation tonometry (this is much more accurate than the air puff mechanism), and is dilated optic nerve examination eOphtha the online portal of ophthalmology. The objective of the eOphtha is to provide a portal where ophthalmologists, residents, fellows and optometrists would be able to access articles, PowerPoint presentations, blogs, question papers, etc. to help them learn and grow. The simplicity and creativity of the information provided on the website is what made it popular in the ophthalmology.

150 Cranial Nerves |authorSTREAMPPT - Clinical eye examination History & physical

This page covers inspection of the eye and fundoscopy (ophthalmoscopy). A complete examination of the eye should include assessment of the optic nerve (vision), eye movement and reflexes. These are covered in the cranial nerve examination page (cranial nerves II - VI) The following equipment is required for a Cranial Nerve Examination: Cotton ball. Safety pin. Pen torch (source of light) Tongue blade. Tuning fork (512 Hz) 1.) Olfactory Nerve (I) The olfactory is a sensory nerve, and damage in the nasal epithelium or the basal gangliamight impair the ability to discriminate different smells A systematic approach for the examination of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer is described that will aid in the detection of glaucoma. This approach encompasses 5 rules: evaluation of optic disc size, neuroretinal rim size and shape, retinal nerve fiber layer, presence of parapapillary atrophy, and presence of retinal or optic disc.

PPT - Optic Nerve Disease PowerPoint Presentation, free

Signs and symptoms of optic neuritis can be the first indication of multiple sclerosis (MS), or they can occur later in the course of MS.MS is a disease that causes inflammation and damage to nerves in your brain as well as the optic nerve.. Besides MS, optic nerve inflammation can occur with other conditions, including infections or immune diseases, such as lupus See the written guide alongside the video here https://geekymedics.com/cranial-nerve-exam/The ability to carry out a thorough and slick Cranial Nerve Examina.. Optic neuritis is a condition that affects the eye and your vision. It occurs when your optic nerve is inflamed. The optic nerve sends messages from your eyes to your brain so that you can interpret visual images. When the optic nerve is irritated and inflamed, it doesn't carry messages to the brain as well, and you can't see clearly Title: PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURIES Author: sss Last modified by: SALEH Created Date: 3/14/2011 4:59:43 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 5ab144-Y2M5 An RAPD is a defect in the direct response. It is due to damage inoptic nerve or severe retinal disease. It is important to be able to differentiate whether a patient is complaining of decreased vision from an ocular problem such as cataract or from a defect of the optic nerve

PPT - Visual System Examination PowerPoint Presentation

Melanocytoma of the Optic nerve head, is a benign, stationary pigmented tumor present on or adjacent to the optic disc. Rarely it exhibits minor enlargement and can also undergo malignant transformation to a melanoma. Histopathologically a melanocytoma consists of intensely pigmented round to oval nevus cells with benign features. We report a case of a 77 year old lady with an Optic nerve head. The only portion of the optic nerve that is visible on examination is the site where the nerve attaches to the eye at the posterior retina (Figure 33-2).The normal nerve has a central area through which the central retinal artery travels, branching into vessels lining the inner layer of the retina Ophthalmoscopic examination. Optic atrophy is seen frequently. It is generally a horizontal-oriented atrophy (ie, bow-tie) that corresponds to the topographic localization of the nasal retina within the optic nerve. Dropout of the nerve fiber layer in the nasal retina also may be noted

Cranial nerves

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning - reflecting loss of ganglion cell axons that leave the retina as the optic nerve and synapse onto the lateral geniculate nucleus - as revealed by OCT, is thought to be a good model of brain neurodegeneration, since retinal cells are unmyelinated, and so any thinning directly reflects cell loss (Lee et al., 2013) Optic nerve Optic is pronounced OPP — tick and it means eye. The optic nerve is the main nerve of your eye. It is at the back of your eye. It carries the signals to your brain that allow you to see. Retina Microsoft PowerPoint - Eye exam 1-04-08BW.ppt Author Importance: Glaucoma is a worldwide leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage, diagnosis is frequently delayed. A general understanding of the disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment may assist primary care physicians in referring high-risk patients for comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and in more actively. The optic nerve is the visual nerve (optikos = vision) and it is purely sensory in function. The optic nerve is formed by the convergence of axons from the retinal ganglion cells. These cells, in turn, receive impulses from the photoreceptors of the eye. For the most part, the optic nerve is encased in the three meninges The optic nerve sheath is anatomically continuous with the dura mater, and has a trabeculated arachnoid space through which cerebrospinal fluid slowly percolates. 4 The substance of the nerve seen on ultrasound examination is homogeneous with low internal reflectivity compared with the high reflectivity of the nerve sheath: this was utilised by. Similar to examination for retinal hemorrhages, evaluation of the optic nerve is often difficult in pediatric patients, particularly infants and toddlers. In older children, examination of the nerve may be part of the routine well-child examination, or may be performed due to specific symptoms (such as headache)